Skócia - egy kis történelem filmrészlettel

Skócia - egy kis történelem filmrészlettel

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William Wallace máig a legjelentősebb skót nemzeti hős. 

The Kingdom of Scotland

The first written records go back to Roman times: the Picts – a ferocious group of Celtic tribes – made the Romans retreat to Hadrian’s Wall in the north of England in the 3rd century AD. In the 5th century, the north-west of Scotland was settled by another Celtic tribe, the Gaels from Northern Ireland, whose language still survives among speakers of Scottish Gaelic. Around 58,000 people speak Scottish Gaelic at present, mainly on the islands of the Outer Hebrides.

During the 8th century, all of Scotland’s small kingdoms were attacked by Vikings, against whom they united and formed the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. In the next centuries England became stronger and stronger and after successfully conquering Wales, Edward I of England tried to put his hand on Scotland as well, when the Scottish king and his heirs died. When the Scots refused, he not only crushed them in bloody battles in 1296, which earned him the nickname of Hammer of the Scots, but also confiscated the Stone of Scone – the Scottish coronation stone.  

The Stone of Scone was placed in Westminster Abbey and used in the coronation ceremony for hundreds of years, including the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II. Although Scottish students managed to steal the 152 kg stone and transport it to Scotland in 1950, the London police took it back from the altar of Arbroath Abbey. The Stone of Scone was finally returned in 1996 by the British Conservative Government and is now kept in Edinburgh Castle, along with the Crown Jewels of Scotland.

Following the attack by Edward I, Scotland fought back and the most significant Scottish national hero to this day showed his skill as military commander in 1297. At the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Sir William Wallace managed to defeat the English army although the Scots were greatly outnumbered. The Scottish nobles asked France for help, but the French king didn’t keep his promise. In 1304 they gave up the fight and accepted Edward I as their king, which Wallace refused to do. He was captured, brutally tortured and executed in 1305 at Edward I’s orders. Wallace became a martyr, the very symbol of Scotland’s struggle for freedom. But not all was lost: Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland in 1306 and managed to defeat the English. For the next 400 years, Scotland remained an independent country.

Roman times – római kor
ferocious - vad
Celtic tribe – kelta törzs
AD – kr. u.
to settle - letelepedni
Scottish Gaelic – skót gael nyelv
to conquer - meghódítani
heir - örökös
to crush – szétzúzni, megsemmisíteni
nickname - becenév
to confiscate - elkobozni
coronation - koronázás
to manage to – sikerülni
altar - oltár
to return – visszaadni
Crown Jewels - koronaékszerek
significant - jelentős
national hero – nemzeti hős
military commander – katonai vezető
to defeat - legyőzni
although - habár
to outnumber – túlerőben lenni
noble - nemes
to accept as – elfogadni valaminek
to refuse to – elutasítani, megtagadni
to be tortured - megkínozzák
to be executed - kivégzik
struggle - küzdelem
independent - független

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