2004.06.30 - PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

2004.06.30 -  PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

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WELCOME

5 Perc Angol
2004. június


Szia!

A mai leckében a pre- ás suffix-ekkel (el?- és utótagok) fogunk foglalkozni, amelyeket azért érdemes ismertni, mert a segítségükkel számtalan szót tudunk saját magunk is képezni, így a szótárazós szótanulás helyett a szavakat magunk alkothatjuk jelent?sen b?vítve így a szókincsünket!  A nyelvtani leírást ez alkalommal angolul és magyarul is megadtam, hogy a haladóbbak eredeti nyelven is el tudják olvasni. Érdekességként és  gyakorlásként Madonna egyik legújabb számának szövegét választottam, a Love profusion-t, a dalból kideül, hogy miért! Jó tanulást kívánok!

 

JOKE

Two strangers, a man and a woman, are sitting next to each other on a trans-Atlantic flight.
Suddenly, the plane plummets out of control. In panic, the woman turns to the man, tears off her blouse and cries,
"Make me feel like a woman one more time!"
Rising to the occasion, the man tears off his shirt and says "Here, iron this."

 


2004 június 25-ig
minden beíratkozó hallgató 42 ingyenes foglalkozást kap ajándékba.

Társalgási tanfolyamaink folyamatosan kéthetente indulnak.

Intenzív tanfolyamaink június 28 - t?l indulnak

 

USELESS FACT

40 percent of the almonds in the world are used by manufacturers of chocolate.

A single chocolate chip gives enough energy to a human being to walk 150 feet.

 

MAI TÉMÁNK

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

Most words used in the English language today were not originally English. These words were borrowed (taken) from other languages. The majority of English words have Latin or Greek origins. When learning English as a foreign language, it is helpful to know some of these origins or "roots" of English vocabulary. It may be possible to guess the meaning of an unknown word when one knows the meaning of its root.

An English word can consist of three parts: the root, a prefix and a suffix. The root is the part of the word that contains the basic meaning (definition) of the word. The root is the base element of the word. A prefix is a word element that is placed in front of a root. A prefix changes the word's meaning or makes a new word. A suffix is a word element that is placed after the root. The suffix changes the word's meaning as well as its function (use). Prefixes and suffixes are called affixes because they are attached to a root.

A legtöbb szó a mai angol nyelvben nem angol eredet?. Ezeket a szavak más nyelvekb?l vette át az angol. Az angol szavak nagy részének latin vagy görög eredete van. Amikor az ember nyelvet tanul, hasznos lehet, ha ismerjük ezeknek a szavaknak az eredetét vagy más szóval a tövét. Így egy ismeretlen szónak a jelentése kitalható, ha ismerjük a tövét.

Egy angol szó három részb?l állhat: a szót? (root), az el?tag (prefix) és az utótag (suffix). A t? a szónak az alap jelentést hordozó része, amely a szónak az alap eleme. Az el?tag (prefix) az a szóelem, amely a szót? (root) elé kerül. Az el?tag megváltoztathatja a szónak a jelentését vagy akár a szófaját is, egy új szót létrehozva így. Az utótag (suffix) az az elem, amely a szót? után jön. Az utóta megváltoztatja a szónak a jelentését és a funkcióját (használatát). A pre- és suffixumokat együtt affixumnak (affix) hívják, mivel a szót?höz vannak csatolva.

Example:

  • Root: act

root (act):

means "do" or "perform"

act (root):

"do"

definition:

verb; to perform, behave
noun; a performance, a thing done

sentence:

You act like a child.

  • Prefix: re-

Prefix (re-):

means "back" or "again"

react (prefix + root):

"do back"

definition:

verb; to act in response to something,
to act in opposition to something

sentence:

How will she react when she hears the news?

  • Suffix: -ion

Suffix (-ion):

indicates that the word has become a noun

reaction (prefix + root + suffix):

something done back

definition:

noun; a response to something,
an opposing action

sentence:

Her reaction to the news was childish.

 

PREFIXES

anti-
opposed to or against; opposite of or preventing

  • The noise of anti-aircraft fire could be heard.
  • Her anti-violence views are well known.
  • An anti-corruption investigation is taking place.

co-
together; with:

  • co-ownership
  • a co-writer/co-author
  • Appalling poverty and great wealth coexist in the city.

com-
together; with:

  • combination
  • community
  • companions

de-
used to add the meaning 'opposite', 'remove' or 'reduce' to a noun or verb:

  • the deforestation of the rainforests
  • the denationalization of the coal industry
  • Once you've written a computer program, you have to debug (= remove the errors from) it.

dis-
added to the front of some words to form their opposites:
^

  • to disagree
  • a dishonest person

SUFFIXES

-able, -ible (CAN BE)

added to verbs to form adjectives which mean able to receive the action of the stated verb

  • breakable
  • washable
  • moveable
  • presentable
  • A countable noun is one that can be counted.

-able, -ible (WORTH BEING)

added to verbs to form adjectives which mean worth receiving the action of the stated verb

  • an admirable person
  • an acceptable answer

-ion, -ation, -ition (ACTION)

added to verbs to form nouns showing action or condition

  • In 'obsession' a noun has been formed from the verb 'obsess' by adding -ion.
  • In 'admiration' a noun has been formed from the verb 'admire' by removing the 'e' and adding -ation.
  • In 'repetition' a noun has been formed from the verb 'repeat' by changing the spelling and adding -ition.

-en (INCREASE)

used to form verbs which mean to increase the stated quality

  • You can sweeten your drink with honey or brown sugar.
  • If your belt is too tight then loosen it.

-ful (HAVING)

having the stated quality to a high degree, or causing it

  • a colourful picture (=a picture containing a lot of colours)
  • a powerful person (=someone who has a lot of power)
  • a tearful child (=a child who is crying a lot)
  • a painful illness (=an illness causing pain)
  • a truthful person (=someone who always tells the truth)

-ful (AMOUNT)

the amount of something needed to fill the stated container or place

  • two spoonfuls/spoonsful of sugar
  • a mouthful of tea
  • a houseful of people

 

 

-ify, -fy

used to form verbs meaning to cause an increase in the stated quality; to become

  • to simplify (=make more simple)
  • to intensify (=make more intense)
  • to beautify (=make beautiful)
  • The cement had solidified (=become solid)

-ism (ESPECIALLY DISAPPROVING)
combining form
used to form nouns which describe social, political or religious beliefs, studies or ways of behaving

  • fanaticism
  • fogeyism
  • sexism
  • feminism
  • Buddhism

-ist
combining form
used to form adjectives and nouns which describe (a person with) a particular set of beliefs or way of behaving.

  • Marxist philosophy
  • a feminist
  • a sexist
  • a Daoist

-ize, British and Australian usually -ise
combining form added to adjectives to form verbs meaning to cause to become

  • to modernize (=to make modern)
  • to centralize

-less (WITHOUT)
combining form used to form adjectives meaning without (the thing mentioned)

  • Something without meaning is meaningless.
  • He has no friends at all - he is friendless.

-ment
combining form used to form nouns which refer to an action or process or its result

  • strong government
  • successful management
  • a great achievement
  • a bitter disappointment

-ness
combining form added to adjectives to form nouns which refer to a quality or a condition happiness (=the quality of being happy)

  • sadness
  • nervousness
  • selfishness
  • In 'kindness' a noun has been formed from the adjective 'kind'.
  • the causes of homelessness (=the condition of people who do not have a home)

-ship (RANK)
combining form having the rank, position, skill or relationship of the stated type

  • lordship
  • partnership
  • craftsmanship
  • friendship

-ward (TOWARDS)
combining form towards the stated place or direction

  • At least we're walking in a homeward direction.
  • The living room has seaward facing windows.
  • Take the northward road.
  • At last, to our great joy we were sailing landward.
  • Move onward three squares.

-wards
combining form

  • Take a couple of steps backwards/forwards.
  • Keep looking upwards as you climb - if you look downwards you'll feel dizzy.
  • Stand in a circle all facing inwards.
  • We continued walking southwards for another three or four kilometres.

-wise (IN THIS WAY)
combining form in this way or in this direction

  • As an actor he had his own peculiar way of walking crabwise across a stage.
  • Cut the fish open lengthwise.
  • That's interesting - you use the spoon clockwise to whip food and I do it in the opposite direction.

-wise (RELATING TO)
combining form INFORMAL relating to

  • What shall we do foodwise - do you fancy going out to eat?
  • Moneywise, of course, I'm much better off than I used to be.
  • What do we need to take with us clothes-wise?
  • We were very lucky weather-wise yesterday.
     
Madonna: Love Profusion
 
There are too many questions
There is not one ........................................................
There is no ........................................................
There is so much ........................................................
 
And the love ........................................................
You make me feel
You make me know
And the love ........................................................
You make me feel
You make it shine
 
There are too many ........................................................
There is no ........................................................
I have lost my ........................................................
What I want is an ........................................................
 
And the love ........................................................
You make me feel
 
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