The United Kingdom – Beszéljük az Egyesült Királyságról

Ebben a rövid leckében egy kis összefoglalót olvashatsz a United Kingdom-ról, azaz az Egyesült Királyságról.

The United Kingdom includes the whole island of Great Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland), as well as the northern section of the island of Ireland. The term Britain is occasionally used to refer to the entire United Kingdom. London is the capital and one of the world’s most important commercial, financial, and cultural centres. Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester in England, Belfast and Londonderry in Northern Ireland, Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland, and Swansea and Cardiff in Wales are among the other significant cities.

The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced back to the reign of Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who secured the allegiance of neighbouring Celtic kingdoms in the early 10th century CE and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” according to a contemporary chronicle.

During the 1600s, Ireland came under English influence and was legally unified with Great Britain by the Act of Union of 1800. The Republic of Ireland won independence in 1922, but six of Ulster’s nine counties remained under British control as Northern Ireland. Relations between these component states and England have been fraught with contention, outright revolt, and even conflict at times. These tensions began to ease in the late twentieth century, when devolved legislatures were established in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

Despite the establishment of a power-sharing assembly following referendums in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland’s unionists (who favour continued British sovereignty over Northern Ireland) and nationalists (who favour unification with the republic of Ireland) remained tense well into the twenty-first century.

The United Kingdom has made substantial contributions to the global economy, particularly in the fields of technology and manufacturing. However, after World War II, the United Kingdom’s most notable exports have been cultural, such as literature, theatre, cinema, television, and popular music, which draw from all regions of the country. The English language, perhaps Britain’s greatest export, is today spoken in every corner of the world as one of the primary worldwide mediums of cultural and economic interchange.

Through the Commonwealth, the United Kingdom maintains ties with sections of its previous empire. It also has historical and cultural ties with the US and is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Furthermore, the United Kingdom joined the European Union in 1973. Many Britons, on the other hand, were occasionally hesitant EU members, clinging to the ideals of Winston Churchill, the great wartime prime minister. Indeed, in a referendum on whether the United Kingdom should stay in the EU in June 2016, 52 percent of British voters voted to leave.

After much wrangling, multiple deadline extensions, months of internal political wrangling, and two changes of prime minister, a deal on “Brexit” (British withdrawal from the EU) was achieved that pleased both the EU and the majority of Parliament. As a result, the United Kingdom became the first country to leave the EU on January 31, 2020.

Vocabulary

to include magába foglalni
term (szak)kifejezés
occasionally alkalmanként
to refer to valamire vonatkozni
significant jelentős
to be traced back to visszakövetve lenni
reign uralom, uralkodás
allegiance hűbéri viszony
neighbouring szomszédos
previously korábban, (azt) megelőzően
according to … … szerint
contemporary kortárs, korabeli
influence hatás, behatás
to be legally unified with jogilag is egyesítve lenni
independence függetlenség
county megye
to remain maradni, megmaradni
fraught megterhelt
contention harc, viszály
outright revolt nyílt lázadás
to ease könnyíteni, könnyebbé tenni
devolved elhivatott, elkötelezett
legislature törvényhozás
establishment (meg)alapítás, testület
power-sharing hatalom-megosztó
assembly gyűlés
referendum népszavazás
favour pártfogás, kegy
sovereignty uralom, felségjog
unification egyesítés
tense feszült
to make a contribution to hozzájárulni valamihez
substantial lényeges, fontos, alapvető
particularly különösképpen
notable jelentős, figyelemreméltó
interchange csere, kicserélés
to maintain ties with megtartani a kötelékeket
empire birodalom
furthermore továbbá, ráadásul
hesitant ingadozó, habozó
indeed valóban, csakugyan, sőt
wrangling összetűzés, veszekedés

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