Péntek 13, tényleg balszerencsét jelent? – szövegértési feladattal


5Perc Angol | 2020. 11. 13.
minden

Sokak számára félelmetes nap a péntek 13, de valóban balszerencsét hoz ez a nap, vagy csak a hiedelmek játszanak velünk?

Friday the 13th is thought by many to be the unluckiest day in the Gregorian calendar. Here are 13 facts about this day of ill repute.

1. It’s Unclear Why It Is Feared

Very little is known about the origins of the day’s notoriety. Some historians believe that the superstitions surrounding it arose
in the late 19th century. The first documented mention of the day can be found in a biography of Italian composer Gioachino Rossini,
who died on a Friday the 13th. A 1907 book, Friday the Thirteenth, by American businessman Thomas Lawson, may have further
perpetuated the superstition.

Others believe that the myth has Biblical origins. Jesus was crucified on a Friday, and there were 13 guests
at the Last Supper the night before his crucifixion.

Another account suggests that the day has been associated with misfortune since 1307 when on a Friday the 13th,
the French king gave the orders to arrest hundreds of Knights Templar in France.

2. Yet, the Fear Is Very Real

So real that one scientific name wasn’t enough. The fear of Friday the 13th is also called friggatriskaidekaphobia or paraskevidekatriaphobia.

Friggatriskaidekaphobia comes from Frigg, the Norse goddess of wisdom after whom Friday is named, and the Greek words triskaideka,
meaning 13, and phobia, meaning fear. Paraskevidekatriaphobia is also derived from Greek: paraskeví translates as Friday,
and dekatria is another way of saying 13.

3. …And Very Common!

Experts say that friggatriskaidekaphobia affects millions of people and estimate that businesses, especially airlines,
suffer from severe losses on Friday the 13th.

Triskaidekaphobia, or the fear of the number 13, is even more widespread. So much so that many high-rise buildings, hotels,
and hospitals skip the 13th floor, and many airports do not have gates numbered 13. In many parts of the world, having 13 people
at the dinner table is considered bad luck.

4. Friday the 13th Can Come in Threes

A bit of bad news for all of you who suffer from friggatriskaidekaphobia—all years will have at least one Friday the 13th.
The good news is that there cannot be more than three Friday the 13ths in any given calendar year.
The longest one can go without seeing a Friday the 13th is 14 months.

5. Blame Sunday

For a month to have a Friday the 13th, the month must begin on a Sunday. 2020 will have two Friday the 13ths—one in March and another in November.

6. Friday the 13th Patterns Repeat in the Calendar

There is a calendrical method to the madness of Friday the 13th. Whenever a common year begins on a Thursday,
the months of February, March, and November will have a Friday the 13th. This will happen 11 times in the 21st century.

The February-March-November pattern repeats in a 28-year cycle. In the 21st century, the period began in 2009.
In 2015, 6 years later, Friday the 13th occurred in February, March, and November.
This won’t happen for 11 more years until 2026, and we’ll have to wait again for 11 years until 2037 to see the February, March, and November trilogy.

7. Even During Leap Years

Three Friday the 13ths can occur in a leap year as well. If January 1 of a leap year falls on a Sunday, the months of January,
April, and July will each have a Friday the 13th.

In the 20th century, this happened in 1928, 1956, and 1984. And in the 21st century, this will happen four times in 2012, 2040,
2068, and 2096. Notice something interesting? Yes, it is the 28-year cycle again!

8. Fittingly, Alfred Hitchcock Was Born on the 13th

The master of suspense was born on August 13, 1899—so Friday, August 13, 1999, would have been his 100th birthday.
He made his directorial debut in 1922 with a movie called Number 13. Unfortunately, the film was doomed from the start
and never got off the ground due to financial troubles.

Other celebrities and well-known personalities born on a Friday the 13th include actors Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen; novelist and playwright,
Samuel Beckett; and former President of Cuba, Fidel Castro.

9. It’s an Unlucky Day Only for Some

Friday the 13th is not universally seen as a day of misery. For example, in Italy, Friday the 17th and not Friday the 13th is considered
to be a day that brings bad luck. In fact, the number 13 is thought to be a lucky number!

In many Spanish speaking countries and in Greece, Tuesday the 13th is seen as a day of misfortune.

10. …And Research Suggests That It May Not Be Unlucky After All

There is very little evidence to show that Friday the 13th is indeed an unlucky day. Many studies have shown that Friday the 13th
has little or no effect on events like accidents, hospital visits, and natural disasters.

11. The Day Inspired One of the Highest-Grossing Film Series

The commercially successful Friday the 13th enterprise includes 12 horror movies, a television series, and several books
that focus on curses and superstitions. Even though the films and the television series consistently received negative reviews from critics,
they have a considerable following. The mask worn by the key character in the movies, Jason Voorhees, is one of the most known images in popular culture.

12. …And a Country to Raise Safety and Accident Awareness

Since 1995, Finland has dedicated one Friday the 13th in a year to observe National Accident Day.
The day aims to raise awareness about safety—on the roads, at home, and at the workplace.

13. An Asteroid Will Safely Fly By the Earth in 2029

On a Friday the 13th! Friday, April the 13th, 2029, to be exact. When 99942 Apophis was discovered in 2004,
it was thought to have a small chance of colliding with Earth. But you can rest easy because since then,
scientists have revised their findings which show that there is absolutely no risk of the asteroid impacting the Earth or the Moon.

source: article by Aparna Kher, timeanddate.com

A cikk elolvasása után próbálj röviden válaszolni a következő kérdésekre a szöveg alapján.
 

1. Where can the first documented mention of the day be found?

2. What is considered bad luck in many parts of the world when it comes to having a meal?

3. When must a month begin to have a Friday 13th in it?

4. When is there a Friday the 13th in January, April and July in a leap year?

5. Which date is considered to bring bad luck in Italy?

6. What have many studies shown about Friday the 13th effect on events?

keys/megoldások: 1. in a biography of Italian composer Gioachino Rossini; 2. when there are 13 people at the dinner table; 3. on a Sunday; 4. If January 1st of a leap year falls on a Sunday; 5. Friday the 17th; 6. It has little or no effect on events like accidents, hospital visits, and natural disasters.

Vocabulary

ill repute

rossz-hírnév

to fear

félni valamitől

notoriety

híresség

superstitions

babonák

surrounding

környező

to arise
(arose, arisen)

keletkezni/
eredni

perpetuate

fenntartani

to crucify

keresztre feszíteni

account

beszámoló

misfortune

balszerencse

to give the orders

rendelkezni valamiről

to arrest

letartóztatni

Yet,

Mégis/
Azonban

Knights Templar

Templomos Lovagok

goddess of wisdom

bölcsesség istennője

to derive from

származni valahonnan/
eredni valahonnan

to estimate

becsülni

severe losses

súlyos veszteségek

to skip

kihagyni

to consider

tekinteni

to come in threes
(bad things come in threes)

a baj nem jár egyedül/
ha valami rossz kétszer
megtörténik, harmadszor is fog

Patterns

minták

to occur

bekövetkezni

leap years

szökő évek

suspense

kétség/
izgatott várakozás

to doom

halálra ítélni

to get off the ground

megindulni (project)

due to financial troubles

pénzügyi gondok miatt

playwright

drámaíró/
színműíró

universally

egyetemesen/
mindenütt

misery

szenvedés/
nyomorúság

misfortune

balszerencse

evidence

bizonyíték

indeed

valóban/
tényleg

highest-grossing

legjövedelmezőbb

curses

átkok

consistently

következetesen

to raise awareness

figyelmet felkelteni

to dedicate

szentelni/
szánni

to observe

megtartani

to collide with

összeütközni
valamivel

to revise

felülvizsgálni/
módosítani

to impact

hatással lenni

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