Talking about disabilities

Talking about disabilities

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Ebben a leckében egy nagyon fontos témát fogunk átnézni, mégpedig azt, hogyan beszéljünk nyíltan és megbántás nélkül a fogyatékkal élőkről. 

A disability is an aspect of a person that limits them in some way. Physical disabilities limit the way the body works. For example, some people need glasses because they do not see well. Other people do not walk and use wheelchairs. Developmental disabilities limit some people's thinking. Other terms for this include retardation, mentally handicapped and special needs. For instance, Down Syndrome is an example of a developmental disability. People with disabilities try to live just like other people do. They sometimes need special equipment such as special cups to drink from or accessible buildings (with ramps, elevators, wide doorways and plenty of room beside the toilet, for example).

According to a recent survey two-thirds of people feel uncomfortable or awkward talking to somebody who is disabled. Firstly, because they feel sorry for people with disabilities. Secondly, because they are afraid that they will say something wrong. What's important is that you respect the person and see them beyond their disability.

The most important question many people have is: What is appropriate terminology, for example, disability, impairment, or handicap? When you're working with someone, you can ask what terminology he or she prefers. Some people prefer different terms, some get very upset about terminology, and some don't care. Some people really appreciate the opportunity to talk about their disability and educate people about accessibility issues, and others don't like to talk about it at all.

Before you help someone, ask whether they need help. In some cases a person with a disability might seem to be struggling, yet they are fine and would prefer to complete the task on their own.

If you are talking to a person who is hard of hearing and uses an interpreter, make sure you focus your interaction with the person you are talking to and not to the interpreter. If you will be speaking for some time with a person in a wheelchair, sit down so that you are at eye level with them so they don't have to strain their neck to look up to you.

Avoidpotentially offensive terms or euphemisms. Commonly accepted terminology includes people with disabilities" and "a person with a visual/hearing/physical/speech/cognitive impairment”. Also, be aware of personal space. Some people who use a mobility aid, such as a wheelchair, walker, or cane, see these aids as part of their personal space. Don't touch, move, or lean on mobility aids. This is also important for safety.

AFFIRMATIVE LANGUAGE

LANGUAGE TO AVOID

person with a disability, people with disabilities, disabled

handicapped, cripple, victim, crip, unfortunate, defective, handi-capable

wheelchair user, uses a wheelchair

wheelchair-bound

blind, low vision, partially sighted

blind as a bat, sightless, the blind

mobility disability

deformed, maimed, paralytic, lame

psychologically/emotionally disabled, emotional disorder

the mentally ill, mental, crazy, insane

developmentally disabled

retard, mentally defective

birth anomaly, congenital disability

birth defect, mongoloid

a person who is deaf or hard of hearing

suffers a hearing loss, the deaf

person with epilepsy

spastic, epileptic, spaz

speech disability, communication disability

tongue-tied

non-vocal, a person who is non-verbal

mute, dumb

a person of short stature, little person

midget, dwarf

learning disability

slow

chronic illness

suffers from, afflicted, stricken with

Injury means a harm or hurt. Usually an injury is when the body or a part of the body is damaged by something. Another word for physical or mental injury is trauma. Injury can be:

environmentalburns from heat or injury from cold
penetrating injury – when a sharp object, like a knife pierces the body
blunt injury – when something hits the body (like punching someone or falling from a tree)
chemical – being hurt by chemicals like burns from acid

Injury can be accidental or intentional. Intentional injury is when someone tries to hurt another person. (Intentional injury is also called non-accidental injury.) Accidental injury is when no one meant to hurt the injured party. An injury can be:

serious injury – komoly sérülés
minor injury – kisebb sérülés
multiple injuries – többszörös sérülés
internal injury – belső sérülés
fatal injury – halálos sérülés

Other collocations:

to suffer an injury – sérülést szenvedni
to sustain an injury (used especially in newspaper reports) – sérülést szenvedni
to escape/to avoid an injury – megúszni egy sérülést

Her arm is in plaster.

She is in a wheelchair.

His arm is in a sling.

She is walking on crutches.

Be van gipszelve a keze.

Kerekesszékben van.

Fel van kötve a karja.

Mankóval jár.

He needs a walking stick.

His hand is bandaged up.

She has had to have stitches on her eyebrow.

She can’t walk without a zimmer frame/ walker.

Botra van szüksége a járáshoz.

Be van kötözve a keze.

Össze kellett ölteni a szemöldökét.

Nem tud járni járókeret nélkül.

Vocabulary

disability

fogyatékosság

to limit

behatárolni

wheelchair

kerekes szék

developmental

fejlődési

retardation

visszamaradás, retardáció

special needs

különleges igényű

equipment

felszerelés

accessible

akadálymentes

ramp

rámpa

survey

felmérés

awkward

kellemetlen, ciki

terminology

szóhasználat

impairment

károsodás

handicap

hátrány, fogyatékosság

to appreciate

értékelni

to struggle

küzdeni

to avoid

elkerülni

offensive term

sértő kifejezés

euphemism

szépítő kifejezés

mobility aid

mozgásban segítő eszköz

walker

járókeret

cane

bot

to lean on

rátámaszkodni

cripple

béna

wheelchair-bound

kerekes székhez kötött

congenital

veleszületett, születési

to be afflicted with/by

valamitől sújtott

environmental

környezeti

burns

égések

penetrating

szúrt

to pierce

megszórni

blunt

tompa

acid

sav

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