Whole Milk, British English and Other Retronyms
Whole Milk, British English and Other Retronyms

Whole Milk, British English and Other Retronyms

Vannak olyan szavak, amelyek régebben léteztek, de az idő előrehaladtával és a technika fejlődésével a hozzájuk tartozó jelentés módosult. Ezekből nézünk meg egy csokorra valót.

Retronyms describe an original after a new version has shown up.

A retronym is a term consisting of a noun and a modifier which specifies the original meaning of the noun. For example, organic food is a retronym: a long time ago, all food was what we now consider "organic." Retronyms can be objects (pedal bike), experiences (snow skiing), or even places (meatspace). Most of us use retronyms all the time without thinking about it.

1. regular coffee distinguished from decaffeinated coffee

Consumers accept the fact that decaffeinated coffee costs more than regular coffee. They assume that decaffeinated coffee is made by putting regular coffee through an extra process that removes part of the caffeine, and it is logical that an extra process should add to the cost of the finished product.

—Bill Gold, The Washington Post, 2 Dec. 1980

2. British English distinguished from American English, Australian English, Indian English, etc.

American English, as taught to foreigners, is Boston-based, classless, recognizably but not radically different from British English except in pronunciation, and capable of analysis into a reasonably learnable number of phonemes and morphemes.

— Robert Burchfield, The English Language, 1985

3. Outdoor rock climbing distinguished from indoor rock climbing

While outdoor rock climbing as a sport has been around for more than a century, indoor climbing gyms came about only in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

— Andrea Park, Houstonia (houstoniamag.com), 14 Oct. 2016

4. Acoustic guitar distinguished from electric guitar

Dylan came out all alone, small and brave, with just his harmonica and his acoustic guitar. I was too far away to see the details of his face, but I could see his hair, curly and mousy, and that tense, crabbed stance.

— Johnathan Schell, The New Yorker, 11 Feb. 1974

5. Cloth diaper distinguished from paper diaper, disposable diaper

Carry as many paper diapers as you can squeeze into your luggage, change your child less frequently than you might at home, purchase paper diapers where available and carry a backup supply of cloth diapers.

— Donna Hussain, The New York Times, 8 June 1975

6. Analog watch distinguished from digital watch

An analog watch indicates the time with hands, analogically; a digital watch represents the time directly in digits. With an analog watch you "see" a pattern; with a digital watch, you "read" the time.

— Seiko Digital Quartz LC Information Manual, 1976

7. Manual typewriter distinguished from electric typewriter

Now, a free-lance writer, working in a corner of his own home, producing his manuscripts on his own twenty-year-old manual typewriter, operates on a Lilliputian scale, and must view even a marginal governmental interest in his work with the mingled gratitude and alarm of a wren whose nest is being appraised by an eagle.

— John Updike, Hugging the Shore, 1983

8. Scripted show distinguished from reality show

He acknowledged that there are only so many advertisers each year that would be able to sign up to fund a scripted show, particularly when the payoff … is uncertain.

— Mike Shields, Wall Street Journal, 27 Dec. 2016

9. Film camera distinguished from video camera, digital camera

Other techniques for transferring video to film involve pointing a conventional film camera at a modified video monitor, creating what is called a "kinescope." That is how old TV shows, such as the original Honeymooners, were preserved in the '50s, before the widespread adoption of videotape.

— Video Review, July 1991

10. Rotary phone distinguished from touch-tone phone

Although the day of the rotary phone is nearly past, lots of people still have phone service that handles only the pulse signals those phones produce, not the tone signals sent by most modern phones.

— Consumer Reports, December 1992

11. Combustible cigarette distinguished from electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, etc.

Combustible cigarettes have already been banned in restaurants and public parks, but since the FDA has not yet ruled on whether or not e-cigs are equally harmful, they have yet to be regulated.

— Linette Lopez, Business Insider, 19 Dec. 2013

12. Whole milk distinguished from skim milk, 2% milk, etc.

From nonfat through whole milk products, there's a wide choice of nutritious dairy foods to fit every diet, even fat-modified diets.

— advertisement, Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 Feb. 1989

13. Corn on the cob distinguished from corn cut from the cob

When application was made for rations, it was found that the last morsel belonging to the division had been issued to the command, and the battalion was again thrown on its own resources, to wit: corn on the cob intended for the horses. Two ears were issued to each man.

— Carlton McCarthy, Detailed Minutiae of Soldier life in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865, 1882

14. Live music distinguished from recorded music

He neared the spot where Nedda lived. This was an especially desirable residential area. The houses were large and gracefully designed, and the gardens were especially lush. Presently he heard music ahead—live music.

— Murray Leinster, "The Pirates of Ersatz," 1959

15. silent-film distinguished from sound film, talkie

Silent film did not merely lay the foundation for the sound film, but was itself a separate, autonomous art with significant achievements that were never to be equaled.

— Ira Konigsberg, The Complete Film Dictionary 1987

16. Brick-and-mortar distinguished from online

There are signs the brick and mortar retailing giants have begun to figure out the Web and are ready to give their online-only rivals a cyberspace spanking.

— Stephanie Stoughton, The Boston Globe, 6 Mar. 2000

17. Bar soap distinguished from liquid soap, body wash

According to the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, cuts and scrapes actually heal better when cleansed with mild bar soap and water….

— Barbara Sande Dimmitt, Parenting, April 1997

18. Old World distinguished from New World

Mesoamerican writing is believed to have arisen independently of Old World writing, because there is no convincing evidence for pre-Norse contact of New World societies with Old World societies possessing writing.

— Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, 1997

source: merriam-webster.com

Can you give the retronym of the following words?

1. virtual world

2. decaffeinated coffee

3. American English

4. indoor rock climbing

5. electric guitar

6. disposable diaper

7. digital watch

8. electric typewriter

9. reality show

10. video camera

11. touch-tone phone                 

12. e-cigarette

13. skim milk

14. corn cut from the cob

15. recorded music

16. sound film, talkie

17. liquid soap

18. New World

19. online

Key

1. meatspace

2. regular coffee

3. British English

4. outdoor rock climbing

5. acoustic guitar

6. cloth diaper

7. analog watch

8. manual typewriter

9. scripted show

10. film camera

11. rotary phone

12. combustible cigarette

13. whole milk

14. corn on the cob

15. live music

16. silent film

17. bar soap

18. Old World

19. brick-and-mortar

Vocabulary

noun

főnév

modifier

módosítószó

organic food

bioélelmiszer

to consider

valamilyennek tartani

meatspace

valódi (nem virtuális) világ

to distinguish

megkülönböztetni, elkülöníteni

decaffeinated coffee

koffeinmentes kávé

to assume

feltételezni

process

folyamat

recognizably

felismerhetően

pronunciation

kiejtés

phoneme

fonéma (hang)

morpheme

morféma (legkisebb nyelvészeti egység)

curly

göndör

mousy

egérszerű

tense

feszült

crabbed

mogorva

stance

póz

cloth diaper

textilpelenka

disposable diaper

eldobható pelenka

to squeeze into

begyömöszölni

to change

tisztába tenni

backup supply

tartalék készlet

to indicate the time

mutatni az időt

hand

mutató

digit

számjegy

pattern

alakzat, minta

to read

leolvasni

manual typewriter

kézi írógép

manuscript

kézirat

marginal

érintőleges, marginális

mingled

valamivel vegyült

gratitude

hála

wren

ökörszem

nest

fészek

to appraise

értékelni

eagle

sas

scripted

forgatókönyv szerint zajló

conventional

hagyományos

rotary phone

tárcsás telefon

combustible

éghető, meggyújtható

to be banned

be van tiltva

whole milk

teljes tej

skim milk

fölözött tej

nutritious

tápláló

corn on the cob

főtt kukorica

morsel

morzsa

division

szakasz, hadosztály

command

parancsnokság

battalion

hadsereg

ear

kukoricacső

live music

élőzene

recorded music

rögzített zene

gracefully

elegánsan

lush

buja

sound film, talkie

hangosfilm

to lay the foundation

lefektetni az alapot

brick-and-mortar

fizikai, fizikailag létező

spanking

elfenekelés

bar soap

(nem folyékony) szappan

cuts and scrapes

vágások és karcolások

convincing evidence

meggyőző bizonyíték

Nehézségi szint:

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