The 13 Martyrs of Arad – Az aradi vértanúkról angolul

középfok
Október 6. az aradi vértanúk napja. Rövid, angol nyelvű összefoglalóval emlékezünk meg erről a róluk, és erről a napról.

In a historic speech on March 3, 1848, shortly after news of the revolution in Paris had arrived, Lajos Kossuth demanded parliamentary government for Hungary and constitutional government for the rest of Austria. The Revolution started on March 15, 1848, and after military setbacks in the winter and a successful campaign in the spring, Kossuth declared independence on April 19, 1849. By May 1849, the Hungarians controlled all of the country except Buda, which they won after a three-week bloody siege. The hopes of ultimate success, however, were frustrated by the intervention of Russia. After all appeals to other European states failed, Kossuth abdicated on August 11, 1849, in favor of Artúr Görgey, whom he thought was the only general capable of saving the nation. On August 13, 1849, Görgey signed a surrender at Világos to the Russians, who handed the army over to the Austrians. At the insistence of the Russians, Görgey was spared. The Austrians took reprisals on other officers of the Hungarian army.

The thirteen Hungarian generals were executed by hanging at Arad on October 6, 1849, with the exception of Arisztid Dessewffy and two others, because of their friendship with the Prince of Luxembourg. Hanging was deemed a form of humiliation. On the same day, Count Lajos Batthyány (1806–1849), the first Hungarian prime minister, was executed in Pest at an Austrian military garrison. Kossuth fled to the Ottoman Empire; he maintained that Görgey alone was responsible for the failure of the rebellion, calling him “Hungary’s Judas”. Others, looking at the impossible situation Görgey was given, have been more sympathetic. They have said that, given the circumstances, he was left with no option other than surrender.

Hungarians have come to regard the thirteen rebel generals as martyrs for defending the cause of freedom and independence for their people. Not all the generals were ethnic Hungarians, but they fought for the cause of an independent and, for its age, liberal Hungary. Arad is remembered on October 6 as the place of the day of mourning for the Hungarian nation.

The generals

Lajos Aulich (1793 – 1849)

János Damjanich (1804 – 1849)

Arisztid Dessewffy (1802 – 1849)

Ernő Kiss (1799 – 1849)

Károly Knezich (1808 – 1849)

György Lahner (1795 – 1849)

Vilmos Lázár (1815 – 1849)

Károly Leiningen-Westerburg (1819 – 1849)

József Nagy-Sándor (1804 – 1849)

Ernő Poeltenberg (1814 – 1849)

József Schweidel (1796 – 1849)

Ignác Török (1795 – 1849)

Károly Vécsey (1807 – 1849)

source: military-history.fandom

Egészítsétek ki a szöveget a megadott szavakkal. Vigyázat, kettővel több opció van, mint amennyire szükségetek van.

capable – controlled – declared – failed – fled – handed – intervention – reprisals – setbacks – siege – surrender – uprisal

The Revolution started on March 15, 1848, and after military 1.____ in the winter and a successful campaign in the spring, Kossuth 2.____ independence on April 19, 1849. By May 1849, the Hungarians 3.____ all of the country except Buda, which they won after a three-week bloody 4.____. The hopes of ultimate success, however, were frustrated by the 5.____ of Russia. After all appeals to other European states 6.____, Kossuth abdicated on August 11, 1849, in favor of Artúr Görgey, whom he thought was the only general 7.____ of saving the nation. On August 13, 1849, Görgey signed a 8.____ at Világos to the Russians, who 9.____ the army over to the Austrians. At the insistence of the Russians, Görgey was spared. The Austrians took 10.____ on other officers of the Hungarian army.

keys/megoldások:

1.setbacks; 2. declared; 3. controlled; 4. siege; 5. intervention; 6.failed; 7. capable; 8. surrender; 9. handed; 10. reprisals

Vocabulary

to demand követelni
constitutional government alkotmányos kormány
military setbacks katonai kudarcok
successful sikeres
declared independence kikiáltotta a függetlenséget
except kivéve
ultimate végső
intervention beavatkozás
appeals felhívások, kérések
to fail kudarcot vallani
to abdicate lemondani
in favor of sy valaki javára
capable

siege

alkalmas

ostrom

to sign a surrender aláírni a fegyverletételt
At the insistence of sy valaki nyomására
to spare sy megkímélni valakit, kegyelmet adni valakinek
to take reprisals on megtorló akciókat indítani
to execute kivégezni
to deem humiliation megalázónak tekinteni
military garrison katonai helyőrség
to flee-fled-fled  elmenekülni
to maintain (állítást) fenntartani
circumstances körülmények
surrender megadás
to come to regard…as úgy tekinteni (rájuk), mint
to defend megóvni, megvédeni

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