The Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-1849

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Március 15 nemzeti ünnepünk. A történelmi eseményekről és a hozzá kapcsolódó jelképről olvashattok érdekes információkat

The Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-1849

On March 15th we commemorate the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-1849. This is also a public holiday in Hungary.

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions that year and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from Habsburg rule.

Many of its leaders and participantsincluding Lajos Kossuth, István Széchenyi, Sándor Petőfi, József Bem, are among the most respected national figures in Hungarian history, and the anniversary of the revolution’s outbreak, on March 15th, is one of Hungary’s three national holidays.

The Revolution started on March 15th in 1848, with bloodless events in Pest and Buda, followed by various insurrections throughout the kingdom, which enabled Hungarian reformists to declare Hungary’s new government and the first Prime Minister of Hungary, Lajos Batthyány.

The new government approved a sweeping reform packagereferred to as the “April laws” (also referred to as the “March Laws”), which essentially created a democratic political system in Hungary. They also demanded that the Hungarian government receive and expend all taxes raised in Hungary, and have authority over Hungarian regiments in the Habsburg army.

In the summer of 1848, aware that they were on the path to civil war, the Hungarian government ministers attempted to gain Habsburg support against Conservative Josip Jelačić. By the end of August, the imperial government in Vienna officially ordered the Hungarian government in Pest to end plans for a Hungarian army. Jelačić then took military action against the Hungarian government without any official order. War between Austria and Hungary had officially begun.

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Initially, the Hungarian forces (Honvédség) achieved several victories fighting with Austrian armies (at Pákozd in September 1848 and at Isaszeg in April 1849). The war led to the October Crisis in Vienna, when insurgents attacked a garrison on its way to Hungary to support Jelačić’s forces.

After Vienna was recaptured by imperial forces, General Windischgrätz and 70,000 troops were sent to Hungary to crush the last challenge to the Austrian Empire. Julius Jacob von Haynau, the leader of the Austrian army who then became governor of Hungary for a few months of retribution, ordered the execution of 13 leaders of the Hungarian army in Arad and the Prime Minister Batthyány in Pest.

Olvassátok el a következő rövid szöveget a kokárdáról.
Egészítsétek ki a szöveget az itt látható szavak használatával.
Vigyázzatok, mert több szó van megadva, mint amennyit használnotok kell!

uniforms – circular – loved – fighters – marks – like – communicate – originated – heart – citizens – wearers – unlike – leaders

The story of the Hungarian cockade

Cockades, 1. __________from 18th century France and the United Kingdom, is made up of a knot of ribbons, or other 2. _______- or oval-shaped symbols of distinctive colors which is usually worn on a hat. In the 18th and 19th centuries, they were used in Europe to show the allegiance of their 3. _______to some political faction, their rank, or as part of a servant’s livery.

Hungarians tend to wear their cockades on March 15th, which 4. ______the beginning of the 1848-49 revolution and freedom fight. According to the Hungarian tradition, the 5. _______ of the radical youth Sándor Petőfi and Mór Jókai got cockades from their 6. _____ones on the eve of the revolution. 7. _____ the French cockade, it wasn’t pinned on their hats, but on the 8. _____side of the jacket or the coat.

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Historically, the Hungarian cockade, in the form of a circular national tricolor ribbon with small straps, has become a symbol of 9. ______who praise the idea of national independence. Its aim was to 10. ________to oncoming people that the person who wore it shares the Hungarian revolutionary notions.

source: About Hungary

keys/megoldások: 1. originated; 2. circular; 3. wearers; 4. marks; 5. leaders; 6. loved; 7. unlike; 8. heart; 9. citizens; 10. communicate; extras: uniforms, fighters, like

Vocabulary

to commemorate megemlékezni
revolution   forradalom
war of independence szabadságharc
public holiday nemzeti ünnep
closely szorosan
to be linked to kapcsolódni
valamihez
kingdom    királyság
to grow into valamivé nőni/
fejlődni
Habsburg rule Habsburg uralom
leader vezető/
vezér
participant résztvevő
including beleértve
respected tisztelt
anniversary évforduló
outbreak kitörése valaminek
bloodless – vér nélküli
insurrection felkelés, lázadás
throughout mindenütt
to enable lehetővé tesz
to declare kinyilatkoztatni
government kormány (országé)
to approve  jóváhagyni
sweeping elsöprő/
nagy lendületű
reform package reformcsomag
referred to as úgy nevezik
essentially alapvetően
political system politikai rendszer
to demand igényelni/
követelni
to expend költeni
authority fennhatóság/
hatalom
regiment ezred
aware felkészült/
óvatos
on the path úton
to attempt megkísérelni
to gain support támogatást
gyűjteni
officially hivatalosan
to take
military action
katonai lépést
tenni
initially kezdetben
victory győzelem
knot csomó/
hurok
ribbons szalagok
distinctive jellegzetes
allegiance hűség
faction csoport/
frakció
rank rang
to mark megemlékezni
livery egyenruha
to pin odatűzni
to praise magasztalni
aim cél
notions eszmék

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